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The infection also activates a host of co-stimulators (IL-1, IL-12, ICAM-1, LFA-3, CD40 and B7 molecules) Specific humoral immune responses, in addition to the T lymphocyte response, including secretory and systemic antibodies, play a role in protective immunity.

It is also suspected that Chlamydia can develop immune-pathogenic Chlamydia antigens.

The outer membrane protein (OMP2) of several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci capable of inducing autoimmune inflammation and are suspected to be responsible for the pathogenesis of Chlamydia-associated inflammatory and autoimmune-like diseases.

The elementary body is the highly infectious form of Chlamydia.

A thorough knowledge of the unique life cycle of Chlamydia, its effect on living tissues and its interaction with the immune system is necessary to make the right diagnosis and design the proper therapy for the condition.

In healthy individuals a fast and vigorous T response after a new infection will rapidly arrest Chlamydia replication, clear the infection, eliminate residual antigens and prevent the establishment of latent infection.

In humans, there are wide ranging genetic differences in the degree of immune response.

Chlamydia trachomatis has emerged recently as one of the most significant pathogens causing symptomatic or asymptomatic genital tract infections and infertility.